2018 年 11 月 16 日
## 剑桥雅思真题13Test4阅读P2-SAVING THE SOIL答案+解析
**Reading Passage 2, Questions 14-21**
14.Healthy soil contains a large variety of bacteria and other microorganisms, as well as plant remains and______.
定位原文：B 段第三句：“A single gram of healthy soil might contain 100 million bacteria, as well as other microorganisms such as viruses and fungi, living amid decomposing plants and various minerals.”原文直接出现 healthy soil, bacteria, microorganisms，decomposing plants跟题干的 plant remains 同义替换，故根据 and 并列结构可以得到答案为 minerals。
15.It provides us with food and also with antibiotics, and its function in storing ______ has a significant effect on the climate.
定位原文：B 段 第 五 句 ：“ Soil is also an ally against climate change: as microorganisms within soil digest dead animals and plants, they lock in their carbon content, holding three times the amount of carbon as does the entire atmosphere.”holding tree times the amount of carbon 持有（贮存）3 倍量的碳，hold 此处同义替换题干 store，故答案为 carbon。
16.In addition, it prevents damage to property and infrastructure because it holds______.
定位原文：B 段第六句：“Soils also store water, preventing flood damage: in the UK, damage to buildings, roads and bridges from floods caused by soil degradation costs £233 million every year.”store water 和题干 hold 同义替换，prevent damage 原文重现，故答案为 water。
17.If these microorganisms are lost, soil may lose its special properties. The main factor contributing to soil degradation is the ______ carried out by humans.
定位原文：C 段第四句：“Agriculture is by far the biggest problem.”agriculture 是最大的问题，跟题干直接对应，故答案为 agriculture。
18.Nutrients contained in the unused parts of harvested crops.
定位原文：C 段第六句：“Humans tend not to return unused parts of harvested crops directly to the soil to enrich it, meaning that the soil gradually becomes less fertile.”not to return unused parts 也就是 not be put back into the soil，故答案为C。
19.Synthetic fertilisers produced with the Haber-Bosch process.
定位原文：D 段第四五六句：“But over the past few decades, it has become clear this wasn’t such a bright idea. Chemical fertilisers can release polluting nitrous oxide into the atmosphere and excess is often washed away with the rain, releasing nitrogen into rivers. More recently, we have found that indiscriminate use of fertilisers hurts the soil itself, turning it acidic and salty, and degrading the soil they are supposed to nourish. ”D 段后半部分说 not a bright idea，紧跟其后的 2 个句子描述了各种chemical fertilisers 带来的问题，故答案为 E。
20.Addition of a mixture developed by Pius Floris to the soil.
定位原文：E 段第四句：“When they applied Floris’s mix to the desert-like test plots, a good crop of plants emerged that were not just healthy at the surface, but had roots strong enough to pierce dirt as hard as rock.”Floris 的方法可以让植物在类似沙漠的环境中很好的生长，故答案为A。
21.The idea of zero net soil degradation
定位原文：G 段第四五句：“Chasek and her colleagues have proposed a goal of ‘zero net land degradation’. Like the idea of carbon neutrality, it is an easily understood target that can help shape expectations and encourage action.”an easily understood target 跟 D 项 to be more aware of soil-related issues同义转述，故答案为 D。